In extremely general terms, it can said that behaviourism was a response to the Cartesian (or, even more widely, Western) philosophical tradition in which behaviour, actions or what is done by persons was seen as the outward expression of what goes on in the mind. Thus, in that sense, many of those who were initially involved in artificial intelligence (AI) were following in behaviourism's footsteps in that they believed that if a computer (or robot) behaved as if it had intelligence or had a mind, then, almost by definition, it must be intelligent or have a mind.
Sentience and Sapience
iii) If computer is intelligent
v) then it must have a mind.
J. McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, C.E. Shannon. (1955) 'A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence'